New file formats are a day to day thing now. Every piece of software defines its own, most likely proprietary, file type and syntax. But all software certainly has an expiration date, on which it becomes unsupported. How will you be able to open your files in 100 years time?
Where I come from: Apple Pages for everything. No math equations, no easy collaboration or sharing of documents across my own devices (yes do not use iCloud Drive), no real version control, tied to an ecosystem, large documents.
Where I want to go: Plain text documents for everything, using Markdown or LaTeX as needed, with global templates for consistent, personal formatting and Pandoc to handle the needed document conversions. Future proof format, can be used with Git (you even get diffs), collaborate with anyone who has a text editor, math comes for free with LaTeX, small documents readable by any computer. Also, I get to post documents here without any conversion needed.
Markdown, LaTeX and the typesetting hell
Don't get me wrong here, Markdown is not a typesetting program. It's just a format that makes it easier for you to write formatted text in a way so that source files can be read by a human comfortably. That last part is key, if it weren't for it I would be using LaTeX straight away but it's too cluttered with commands for the source files to be readable. What we will do is write Markdown and then have Pandoc output any format we like. Today I will focus on outputting PDFs and for this Pandoc uses LaTeX.
LaTeX can be difficult to get working, I will explain how to get it set up on
Mac, you can try to follow along on a PC, but you will have to look for the
corresponding versions of the software we will use. Also, LaTeX allows for
infinite customization of documents but that requires getting really dirty with
.tex files. We will sacrifice almost every style decision you were used to
taking when working with Microsoft Word. Will your documents look similar or the
same as every one else's (every one who uses LaTeX at least)? Yes, but they'll
look good. Really good and you can still chose serif or sans serif fonts 😜.
I'll assume you are comfortable with the command line and can edit plain text files without problem.
- Okay, go ahead and install LaTeX. How? You could install the full TexLive distribution which is over 2GB in size. Perhaps it is better to grab the basic package which includes almost anything you'll every need plus a package manager for all kinds of LaTeX extensions or packages. Download the installed for BasicTex from MacTex. Follow instructions to install it (it's a common OSX package) and you are ready to continue.
- Most likely, the packages you just installed are a bit outdated. Run
sudo tlmgr update --self && sudo tlmgr update --allto update both the package manager and all the packages. If when running
pandocit complains about a missing package you may install it easily by executing
sudo tlmgr install my-package. The package archive lives here.
- Next head to http://pandoc.org/installing.html and follow instructions to download and install the Mac package.
- You are pretty much done. Check everything is working by creating a plain
text document (perhaps
test.mdis a good name). Write some Markdown in it and save, then execute
pandoc -o test.pdf test.mdand, wait for it, you have a beautiful PDF document from that ugly text file.
Okay, perhaps it is not the most beautiful document ever. We can try to do
better. Try using a custom template to wrap the Markdown around so that you
don't get huge margins and can include headers and footers.
This is the one I use currently. To render a file within a template
pandoc -o document.pdf --template path/to/template.tex and let Markdown do
rest. It will find special strings inside the template such as
substitute them with the appropriate parts of your document, in this case, the
contents of the file. Here's the official Pandoc documentation for templates:
Also, you can now commit your documents to version control the right way. If
you've never used a version control system (VCS) go ahead and learn hit when
you've got some time (15 minutes to be precise) here. If you already use a VCS, go ahead and commit your
changes. Take care not to commit your rendered PDF files – you can regenerate
them later and they will take up more space than the Markdown sources, plus they
are not easily modifiable. You can tell Git to ignore them by putting
After a short while you will probably realise how tiresome it is to compile
every document you make into a PDF or any other document type (remember Pandoc
can even do
.docx if you ever need to share). You surely can automate this
process. I did. You can build your own scripts or check out
mine. Certainly you can do better and add options to
customize the output name, perhaps add other formats. Please feel free to build
upon it and please make a pull request if you make anything better. (I'm
thinking about using Make or Rake for this...).